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American Council of Christian Churches documents on the Black Manifesto

Collection number: ahc.MSS936f

Scope and Content

This collection contains a reprint of James Forman's 1969 speech "The Black Manifesto," in which he calls for reparations to African Americans from white Christian churches. Also included is a pamphlet published by the American Council of Christian Churches defaming James Forman, and an order form for more relevant literature.


  • 1969, undated


Conditions Governing Access

This collection is open for research.

Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use

Unpublished manuscripts are protected by copyright. All requests to publish, quote, or reproduce must be submitted through the Kenan Research Center.

Administrative/Biographical History

The American Council of Christian Churches, a right-wing, separatist evangelical organization, was founded in 1941 by Carl McIntire (1906-2002), a pro-segregation fundamentalist minister. "The Black Manifesto" was a speech delivered by James Forman, a Civil Rights activist, in 1969 to the congregation of Riverside church. Foreman was involved with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Black Panther Party, and the League of Revolutionary Black Workers. In his speech, he demands reparations from white religious institutions for slavery. The American Council of Christian Churches responded to Forman's speech by publishing material that disputed his position.


1 folder(s)



Immediate Source of Acquisition

Gift, 2012

Existence and Location of Copies

This collection was digitized by JStore's Reveal Digital collection Behind the Scenes of the Civil Rights Movements. It is viewable at

Bias in Description

As archivists, we acknowledge our role as stewards of information. We choose how individuals and organizations are represented and described in our archives. We are not neutral, and bias is reflected in our descriptions, which may not accurately convey the racist or offensive aspects of collection materials. Archivists make mistakes and might use poor judgment. In working with this collection, we often re-use language used by the former owners of the material. This language provides context but often includes bias and prejudices reflective of the time in which it was created. The Kenan Research Center’s work is ongoing to implement reparative language where Library of Congress subject terms are inaccurate and obsolete.

Kenan Research Center welcomes feedback and questions regarding our archival descriptions. If you encounter harmful, offensive, or insensitive terminology or descriptions, please let us know by emailing Your comments are essential to our work to create inclusive and thoughtful description.

Content Advisory

This collection contains original unedited versions of all content. Some material may contain depictions of violence, offensive language, or negative stereotypes reflecting the culture or language of a particular period or place. There may be instances of racist language and depictions. These items are presented as part of the historical record for the purpose of education and research. The viewpoints expressed in this collection do not necessarily represent the viewpoints of the Atlanta History Center or any of its officers, agents, employees, or volunteers.

Description Control

This collection was processed in 2019.

American Council of Christian Churches documents on the Black Manifesto
Rebecca Grieco
December 2019
Description rules
Describing Archives: A Content Standard
Language of description
Script of description
Language of description note
Finding aid is written in English.

Repository Details

Part of the Kenan Research Center at Atlanta History Center Repository

130 West Paces Ferry Road
Atlanta GA 30305