H.O.P.E., INC. (Help Our Public Education) Records
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H.O.P.E., INC. (Help Our Public Education) Records

Descriptive Summary

Repository: Atlanta History Center
Creator: Help Our Public Education (Ga.)
Title: H.O.P.E., INC. (Help Our Public Education) Records
Dates: 1954-1961, undated
Quantity: 3.0 linear ft.
Quantity: Extent: 3 linear ft. (6 document cases, 2 oversized boxes)
Identification: ahc.MSS427

Biographical/Historical Note

In 1954 the United States Supreme Court issued a decision (Brown v. Board of Education) which stated that segregation in public schools was inherently unequal and ordered desegregation “with all deliberate speed.” Southern legislatures, including the Georgia General Assembly, responded with laws which blocked state and local funding for public schools which desegregated. The conflict between federal and state laws created a crisis which led to the closing of public schools in parts of Virginia and Arkansas, and the threat of closure of schools in Georgia. In response, eighteen men and women in Atlanta chartered H.O.P.E., Inc. (Help Our Public Education) in December 1958. H.O.P..E was a nonprofit, largely-volunteer organization whose objective was to prevent the closing of public schools under any circumstances. Its founders included Muriel Lokey, Maxine Friedman, Bettye Harris, Frances Pauley (1905-2003), and attorneys Lanier Randall, James Dorsey, Harry Boyte, and Hamilton Lokey (1910-1996). Members of the organization conducted rallies, gave speeches, led group discussions, and prepared printed materials aimed at informing the public of the danger of closing the public schools. Although established in Atlanta, it became a statewide organization with chapters in Augusta, Athens, Columbus, Gainesville, Jonesboro, Macon, Marietta, Rome, and Savannah. The organization employed one paid staff member and was financed by contributions from supporters. Its operations were carried out by committees of volunteers in the areas of finance, public relations, legal, legislative, and state-wide organization. The pressure created by HOPE and allied organizations and individuals caused Georgia Governor Ernest Vandiver to create a commission to study the problem. That commission was headed by widely-respected John Sibley (1888-1986). Ultimately, the “Sibley Report” was issued recommending the elimination of laws requiring the closure of public schools, if integrated. The Sibley recommendations, plus ever increasing pressure from alarmed citizens weakened the resolve of the Georgia politicians and Atlanta schools were integrated in the fall of 1961. The organization was disbanded shortly thereafter.


Scope and Content Note

The HOPE, Inc. records consist of correspondence, minutes, reports, and printed and published materials generated by the organization from 1958-1961. Also included are records from other allied organizations such as Active Voters, OASIS, Partners for Progress, and the League of Women Voters of Atlanta. The records are also comprised of correspondence, newsletters and mailings from segregationist groups, and a vast quantity of newspaper clippings which document the school closure crisis in Virginia, Arkansas, and Georgia. The clippings are drawn from Georgia newspapers including the Atlanta Journal, Atlanta Constitution, Northside Neighbor, Augusta Courier, Marietta Daily Journal, and Metropolitan Herald. Collectively, these present a reasonably complete background of school integration in the South from 1958-1961.


Arrangement

This collection is arranged alphabetically according to titles supplied by staff.


Index Terms

Active Voters (Atlanta, Ga.)
Bloch, Charles J.
Committee on Human Rights for White People (Atlanta, Ga.)
Education--Arkansas
Education--Georgia
Education--Virginia
Georgia--Newspapers
Georgia. General Assembly. Commission on Schools.
League of Women Voters (Atlanta, Ga.)
Lokey, Hamilton, 1910-1996
Metropolitan Association to Continue Segregation (Atlanta, Ga.)
Partners for Progress (Atlanta, Ga.)
School integration--Georgia
Segregation--Georgia
Separate Schools, Inc. (Atlanta, Ga.)

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

H.O.P.E. (Help Our Public Eduction), MSS 427, Kenan Research Center, Atlanta History Center

Acquisition Information

Gift of Mrs. Hamilton Lokey (Muriel), 1979 (1979.317).

Processing Information

Collection reprocessed in 2008


Restrictions

Restrictions on Access

The collection is open for research.

Restrictions on Use

Unpublished manuscripts are protected by copyright. All requests to publish, quote, or reproduce must be submitted through the Kenan Research Center.


Container List

 

Box

Fldr

11Active Voters, 1958-1959
 
2Atlanta School Board Plan for Desegregation, 1960
 
3Correspondence, 1958-1961
 
4Fundraising, 1959
 
5Historical Sketches, 1961, undated
 
6League of Women Voters of Atlanta, 1958-1959
 
7Magazine Clippings, 1959-1963
 
8Minutes of Executive Committee, 1959-1961
 
9Newsletters and Mailings, 1959-1961
 
10Newspaper Clippings, 5 Oct 1958 – 11 Nov 1958
 
11Newspaper Clippings, 12 Nov 1958 – 22 Nov 1958
 
12Newspaper Clippings, 23 Nov 1958 – 28 Nov 1958
 
13Newspaper Clippings, 1 Dec 1958 – 5 Dec 1958
 
14Newspaper Clippings, 6 Dec 1958 – 10 Dec 1958
 

Box

Fldr

21Newspaper Clippings, 10 Dec 1958 – 15 Dec 1958
 
2Newspaper Clippings, 16 Dec 1958 – 21 Dec 1958
 
3Newspaper Clippings, 21 Dec 1958 – 24 Dec 1958
 
4Newspaper Clippings, 1 Jan 1959 – 10 Jan 1959
 
5Newspaper Clippings, 1 Jan 1959 – 10 Jan 1959
 
6Newspaper Clippings, 10 Jan 1959 – 15 Jan 1959
 
7Newspaper Clippings, 15 Jan 1959 – 20 Jan 1959
 

Box

Fldr

31Newspaper Clippings, 21 Jan 1959 – 25 Jan 1959
 
2Newspaper Clippings, 26 Jan 1959 – 31 Jan 1959
 
3Newspaper Clippings, 1 Feb 1959 – 5 Feb 1959
 
4Newspaper Clippings, 6 Feb 1959 – 10 Feb 1959
 
5Newspaper Clippings, 11 Feb 1959 – 15 Feb 1959
 
6Newspaper Clippings, 15 Feb 1959 – 31 March 1959
 

Box

Fldr

41Newspaper Clippings, April 1959
 
2Newspaper Clippings, May 1959
 
3Newspaper Clippings, June 1959
 
4Newspaper Clippings, July 1959
 
5Newspaper Clippings, August 1959
 
6Newspaper Clippings, September 1959
 
7Newspaper Clippings, October 1959
 

Box

Fldr

51Newspaper Clippings, Nov. – Dec. 1959
 
2Newspaper Clippings, 1960
 
3Newspaper Clippings about HOPE, 1958-1960
 
4Northside High PTA, 1958
 
5OASIS, 1961
 
6Partners for Progress, Civil Rights Act of 1964, 1964, undated
 
7Partners for Progress, Clippings, 1964-1965
 
8Partners for Progress, Correspondence, 1964-1965
 
9Partners for Progress, Newsletters, 1964
 
10Partners for Progress, Printed Materials, 1964-1965
 
11Partners for Progress, Reports, 1964
 
12Planning Documents, 1958-1960, undated
 
13Press Releases, 1959
 
14Printed Materials, 1959-1961
 
15Progress and Financial Reports, 1959-1960
 
16Published Material, 1955-1957
 

Box

Fldr

61Published Material, 1958
 
2Published Material, 1959
 
3Published Material, 1960-1961
 
4Published Material, undated
 
5Save Our Schools, New Orleans, LA, 1960
 
6Segregationist Material, 1958-1961
 
7Report, 1960
 
8Speeches, 1954-1960
 
9Virginia Committee for Public Education, 1959
 
10Volunteers, 1959
 

Box

MSS OS Box 1.43Newspaper clippings, 1959-1960
 

Box

MSS OS Box 5.1Southern School News, 1959-1961